more rigorous science in the late nineteenth century. The phrase “ecology” (“Ökologie”) was coined in 1866 by the German scientist Ernst Haeckel Ecological thought is derivative of established currents in philosophy, notably from ethics and politics.
The abundance and distribution of organisms and biodiversity within the context of the atmosphere. The motion of supplies and energy by way of living communities. These processes are sustained by organisms with particular life history traits.
Ecology addresses the complete scale of life, from tiny bacteria to processes that span the