and coastal life can be contaminated in a number of ways, through poison by ingestion, destruction of habitat and direct contact with oil. For example, when oil floats on the water surface, a marine mammal that surfaces in the center of the slick ingests the oil. Marine animals and organisms that swim through the slick area can also ingest oil through their gills. Wennergren, G., M. Notini, and A. Jernelöv. 1976. Death of long-tailed ducks caused by oil spill, Öland, February 1976. Report on field studies and probable causes to the extensive damage.