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Figure -5 reveals some of the spatial and temporal scales at which these effects most often occur. See Figure 6-4 for another plot of spatial scales by the U.S. Department of Defense. The figure suggests that ecological effects of roads can alter ecological processes over scales that range from minutes to centuries and from meters to thousands of kilometers . That is, ecological effects occur at scales that extend much longer in time and broader in space than those scales currently being used in assessment, planning or management. This issue is addressed in subsequent chapters. The figure also suggests that there is no “correct” scale for understanding how roads interact with ecosystems, but rather multiple, overlapping ranges of scales that correspond to specific ecological structures and processes under consideration. Species and populations have been relatively well researched at the intermediate scale, particularly with respect to the effect of roads on species composition. Little information has been reported at the national scale on species richness, nonnative plants at roadsides, and road-related mortality of wildlife. These effects, although varied, are widespread geographically. Thus, a synthesis of available information or metaanalysis could provide valuable insight into the extent of effects at a broader scale than is known today. The committee found that very little research covers long periods, and almost no research has addressed large spatial scales of road effects. Roadside verges can increase habitat diversity where there is little remaining natural or seminatural habitat. Depending on the nature of roadside verges, they can support abundant populations of some small mammals, insects, and birds, as well as native plant species. Roadside verges can also be important habitats for rare native plant species when juxtaposed in human-modified landscapes. For example, a large proportion of native plants and animals in Great Britain are found in roadside verge habitat. Furthermore, roadside verges have the potential to help restore native grass and wildlife communities. Also, in the arid west, the productivity of desert vegetation can be markedly greater near the roadside Johnson 1975, particularly on the upslope side. However, large areas on the downslope side of the road can be deprived of runoff, resulting in much lower plant biomass and productivity . Biomass resources are derived from living organisms. They are renewable because they are replaced by the continuing processes of growth and reproduction. However, they are vulnerable to over-exploitation if they are used more quickly than they can naturally reproduce and regenerate. Overfishing and deforestation are examples of the over-use of biomass resources. The consequences include loss of biodiversity and loss of income for the people who depend on these resources for their livelihood. Overfishing and other examples of over-exploitation of natural resources can result in damage to or the loss

the buffalo bills football full printing flip flops 2
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