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‘rebound effect’. This is because increased efficiency allows production processes to be performed using fewer resources and often at lower cost. This in turn influences consumer behaviour and product use, increasing demand and leading to increased production. In this way, the expected gains from new technologies that increase the efficiency of resource use may be reduced . Thus, in order for the livestock sector to provide a contribution to GHG mitigation, reduction in emissions intensities need to be accompanied by appropriate governance and incentive mechanisms to avoid rebound effects, such as limits on total production. These estimates of livestock emissions are for those generated within the farm gate.Adding emissions from relevant landuse change, energy use, and transportation processes, FAO and Gerber estimated livestock emissions of up to 5.3 ±1.6 GtCO2eq yr–1 circa the year 2010. This data came from original papers, but was scaled to SAR global warming potential values for methane, for comparability with previous results. Since AR5, a few studies have quantified separate contributions of crops and soils on the one hand, and livestock on the other, to the total emissions from agriculture and associated land use.
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