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tropical/subtropical species over the last 100 years, and more modern declines in temperate/subpolar species Field et al., 2006. In Antarctic waters the extent and period of sea ice, in addition to temperature, influences main production. These effects cascade through Southern Ocean food webs. The density of krill has likely declined in the southwest Atlantic sector 1926–2003, whereas densities of salps, a warmer-water group, have probably increased Atkinson et al., 2004 however, the magnitude of the decline is uneder debate Constable et al., 2014. Krill density is influenced by seasonally necessary food sources; phytoplankton within the water column throughout summer time and phytoplankton beneath winter sea ice Atkinson et al., 2004. Both these food sources are declining with warming temperatures and reducing sea ice extent. Generally, climate change results on seabird demography emerge by way of climate-mediated predator-prey interactions Sydeman et al., 2015. Breeding success is negatively related to warming temperatures for fulmer, Fulmarus glacialis, Lewis et al., 2009, manx shearwaters, Puffinus puffinus, Riou et al., 2011, and black-legged kittiwakes, Rissa tridactyla, Frederiksen et al., 2007 in the north-east Atlantic. These outcomes are probably as a result of local weather-driven adjustments in prey availability, though mechanisms differ amongst populations. For instance, a discount in fledging masses of manx shearwater chicks in the Celtic Sea was linked to larger sea surface temperatures within the preceding winter and a discount in prey quality Riou et al., 2011. A hyperlink between breeding productivity and winter sea floor temperatures within the previous year was additionally shown for kittiwake breeding colonies in east Scotland and Orkney, but not for colonies in adjacent regions Frederiksen et al., 2007. In addition, a optimistic relationship between breeding productiveness and Calanus copepod abundance was present in East Scotland and a unfavorable relationship in Orkney. Calanus is an important prey merchandise of sandeels, Ammodytes marinus, the main meals fed to kittiwake chicks, and relationships have been proven between sea surface temperature, sandeel abundance, and seabird breeding success Arnott and Ruxton, 2002; Poloczanska et al., 2004. The unexpected finding in Orkney highlights that mechanisms are not absolutely understood, however variation in species’ dependence on sandeel as prey among regions could help to clarify the outcome. An example of contrasting long-time period responses of a fish species to ocean warming across a geographic vary is that of the banded morwong, Cheilodactylus spectabilis, in south-east Australia and New Zealand Neuheimer et al., 2011. Using growth rates over 90 years, estimated from otolith evaluation, Neuheimer et al. confirmed that growth rates of fish living in the midst of

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