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technological change. An incentive that works well at one stage of the process may be ineffective—or even counterproductive—at one other. Large-scale change additionally must be considered and considered from a “systems” perspective since the success of any new know-how is commonly dependent upon other technological and non-technological factors. For instance, the diffusion of vitality-saving applied sciences that can mechanically regulate home appliances like air conditioners and water heaters may rely upon the development and dissemination of “good grid” expertise in electrical networks. Similarly, the dissemination of energy-environment friendly appliances could also be inhibited by institutional preparations, similar to landlord-tenant relationships the place neither party has an incentive to buy a costlier but more energy-efficient appliance. Thus, in addition to technical issues, the widespread adoption and dissemination of a new technology could require measures to address social and institutional barriers that affect the character and pace of technological change. In quick, the development and adoption of recent technology is an important component of any comprehensive response to international local weather change. But technological change on the dimensions required cannot occur overnight. To achieve the substantial discount in CO emissions underlying determine , for instance, the United States alone would have to retrofit or substitute hundreds of electrical energy plants, tens of tens of millions of autos, and hundreds of hundreds of thousands of client home equipment, building systems , and industrial processes and tools. Change on this scale will take many a long time to attain. The similar kinds of power system transformations which are illustrated in figure for the United States emerge in other modeling research at the world stage e.g., IPCC, b; Clark et al., 9. While power use is the dominant contributor to GHG emissions, technological change in different sectors will also be wanted to deal effectively with climate change. For instance, modifications in land-use practices, particularly deforestation, are needed to scale back or stop the release of CO from natural “sinks” such as forests and soils. Technological change equally can reduce or keep away from emissions of non-CO GHGs, corresponding to PFCs in the semiconductor business or nitrous oxide emissions from the agricultural sector. More broadly, at least some adaptation to local weather change will almost actually be needed, and such diversifications also would require some degree of technological change .
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