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example, the sale of fruits of M. flexuosa in some parts of the western Amazon constitutes as much as 80% of the winter income of many rural households, but information on trade values and value chains of M. flexuosa is still The hottest cead mile failte happy saint patricks day doormat sparse (Sousa et al. ; Virapongse et al. ). In tropical peatlands, oil palm is the most widespread plantation crop and, on average, it emits around 40 tCO2 ha–1 yr–1; Acacia plantations for pulpwood are the second most widespread plantation crop and emit around 73 tCO2 ha–1 yr–1 (Drösler et al. ). Other land uses typically emit less than 37 tCO2 ha-1yr-1. Total emissions from peatland drainage in the region are estimated to be between 0.07 and 1.1 GtCO2 yr–1 (Houghton and Nassikas ; Frolking et al. ). Land-use change also affects the fluxes of N2O and CH4. Undisturbed tropical peatlands emit about 0.8 MtCH4 yr-1 and 0.002 MtN2O yr-1, while disturbed peatlands emit 0.1 MtCH4 yr–1and 0.2 MtN2O–N yr–1 (Frolking et al. ). These N2O emissions are probably low, as new findings show that emissions from fertilised oil palm can exceed 20 kgN2O–N ha–1 yr–1 (Oktarita et al. ). The main drivers of the acceleration of peatland degradation in the 20th century were associated with drainage for agriculture, peat extraction and afforestation related activities (burning, over-grazing, fertilisation) with a variable scale and severity of impact depending on existing resources in the various countries (O’Driscoll et al. ; Cobb, A.R. et al. Dommain et al. ; Lamers et al. ). New drivers include urban development, wind farm construction (Smith et al. ), hydroelectric development, tar sands mining and recreational uses . Anthropogenic pressures are now affecting peatlands in previously geographically isolated areas with consequences for global environmental concerns and impacts on local livelihoods (Dargie et al. ; Lawson et al. ; Butler et al. ). Globally, peatlands cover 3–4% of the Earth’s land area (Xu et al. 2018a1355) and store 26–44% of estimated global SOC . They are most abundant in high northern latitudes, covering large areas in North America, Russia and Europe. At lower latitudes, the largest areas of tropical peatlands are located in Indonesia, the Congo Basin and the Amazon Basin in the form of peat swamp forests (Gumbricht et al. ; Xu et al. 2018a1358). It is estimated that, while 80–85% of the global peatland areas is still largely in a natural state, they are such carbon-dense ecosystems that degraded peatlands (0.3% of the terrestrial land) are responsible for a disproportional 5% of global anthropogenic CO2 emissions – that is, an annual addition of 0.9–3 GtCO2 to the atmosphere (Dommain et al. ; IPCC 2014c1360). NFPP-related activities received a total commitment of 93.7 billion yuan between 1998 and 2009. Most of the money was used to offset economic losses of forest enterprises

 

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