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metal aluminum cement glass plastics and different core materials in federal and federally supported procurement would assist reward low-emission producers and assist jobs in the United States.one hundred seventy five A federal buy-clean program might plausibly be enacted as a part of must-pass laws and should be designed to encourage deeply decarbonized supplies the place obtainable rather than simply prohibiting purchase of probably the most carbon-intensive products. It ought to set totally different ranges of stringency for various materials—relying in the marketplace availability and value of course of changes and clear manufacturing tools. The EPA and the Department of Energy ought to have joint accountability for growing the stringency of federal buy-clear requirements over time based on technological feasibility and the most effective obtainable science. Unlike other sectors where complete suites of aggressive zero-emission technologies exist and wish extra policy supports to accelerate deployment there’s a comparatively limited set of existing know-how options for manufacturing and the industrial sector extra broadly. Electrification; vitality efficiency; the usage of alternative feedstocks such as biofuels and hydrogen; and carbon seize utilization and storage all maintain promise “however a lot higher diversity of processes and high levels of process integration make options extra complex” because the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory wrote in a study of electrification options for business.64 This signifies that failing to robustly support the event and deployment of fresh manufacturing alternatives would lead to offshoring—putting American staff out of a job; increasing countries’ dependence on Chinese-made applied sciences; and driving up international carbon pollution. Reducing vehicle miles traveled is an important emissions discount technique. Even in a situation of complete electrification of autos by 5 only 5 of the fleet will doubtless be electrified by 37 which means that any discount of car miles traveled will translate instantly into a reduction in petroleum consumption. Reducing the demand for vitality from the transportation sector may even ease the burden of accelerating electrical energy on the grid. Moreover good growth makes lasting modifications in the built setting that can’t be undone with the stroke of a pen or a change in gasoline costs. The emissions impression of transportation varies significantly by mode as is evident in Table . For instance rail transports eighty percent as a lot freight as vans with solely eight as much carbon pollution. When it

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