Males are expelled from the family group when they reach puberty and may live alone or group with other males. Adult males mostly interact with family groups when searching for a mate. Male elephants will have a period of increased testosterone and extreme violence called musth, which displays dominance of one male over other males as well as reproductive success. Juveniles are the center of attention in family groups and are dependent on their mother for three years. Elephants can live 70 years in the wild. They communicate by touch, sight, smell and sound; elephants use infrasound, and seismic communication, to communicate. Elephant intelligence has been compared with primates and whale sets. They appear to have self-awareness, and show empathy for members who are dying or dying.
African elephants are endangered and Asian elephants are threatened by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN). One of the biggest threats to elephant populations is the ivory trade, poaching for ivory. Other threats to wild elephants include habitat degradation and conflict with locals. Elephants are used as pack animals in Asia. In the past, they were also used in warfare; Today, they are often displayed in zoos, or trained for entertainment in circuses. Elephants are a very famous symbol and are featured in the arts, folklore, religion, literature and popular culture of mankind.